The physiology of the reproductive system changes dramatically with the onset of major illness. The serum testosterone concentrations fall to pre-pubertal levels secondary to a decreased secretion of gonadotropins and a decreased Leydig cell response to luteinizing hormone. At the same time, the serum oestrogen concentration rises as the result of an increased rate of peripheral aromatization. The clinical consequences of these marked changes are not yet well understood. One line of evidence argues for the administration of anabolic steroids (derivatives of testosterone) to critically ill patients to improve their catabolic state. Another line of evidence in animal models suggests that testosterone may suppress the immune system and myocardial function in critical illness. No clinical trials of oestrogen administration to critically ill patients have been reported, although two animal studies suggest that oestrogen may have a positive effect on survival. This chapter reviews changes in the physiology of the reproductive system in major illness as well as current evidence regarding the clinical effects of androgens and oestrogens in critical illness and their potential therapeutic roles.
Not shortly after Roger Maris record was broken, another baseball player, Jason Giambi and various other athletes were either suspected of, or proven to have, taken anabolic steroids. Again, Congress convened a hearing, and just as they did the first time in 1990, they did not determine that steroids were a danger, but rather that the danger was more in protecting professional sports organizations. The updated statute has been updated to proscribe pro-hormones also The definition of an anabolic steroid as defined currently in the United States under (41)(A) is that "anabolic steroid" means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens , progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone (7).
I agree with this except for the BCAA part, which is an oversimplification. Leucine is the only BCAA that benefits fasted training. The other 2 BCAAs are pretty much useless. Moreover, HMB (metabolyte of Leucine) is even better. I’ve been doing fasted training for a while, and have tried all 3 (BCAA supplement, Leucine, and now HMB). I notice a subtle difference across the board; mostly notably, my strength gains and recovery feels improved, and my guess is the HMB is doing a better job of preventing of muscle breakdown as a result of fasted weight training. I train at 6am and don’t break my fast until about 11am or 12pm. So this supplement category in particular is important to me.