Metabolic effects occurring during anabolic steroid therapy in immobilized patients or those with metastatic breast disease have included osteolytic-induced hypercalcemia. Anabolic steroids affect electrolyte balance, nitrogen retention, and urinary calcium excretion. Edema, with and without congestive heart failure, has occurred. Decreased glucose tolerance requiring adjustments in hyperglycemic control has been noted in diabetic patients. Significant increases in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and decreases in high density lipoproteins (HDL) have occurred. [ Ref ]
Acne is often present. Acne conglobata is a particularly severe form of acne that can develop during steroid abuse or even after the drug has been discontinued. Infections are a common side effect of steroid abuse because of needle sharing and unsanitary techniques used when injecting the drugs into the skin. These are similar risks to IV drug abusers with increased potential to acquire blood-borne infections such as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS . Skin abscesses may occur at injection sites and may spread to other organs of the body. Endocarditis or an infection of the heart valves is not uncommon.