We examined the expression and activity of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD) in abdominal adipose tissue in women. This recently characterized enzyme from the aldoketoreductase 1C family is responsible for the conversion of progesterone into 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. Abdominal sc (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from a sample of 32 women aged +/- yr (body mass index +/- kg/m(2)) undergoing abdominal hysterectomies. Body composition and body fat distribution measurements were performed before the surgery by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. The expression of 20alpha-HSD was determined by real-time RT-PCR, and its activity was measured in whole-tissue homogenates. mRNA and activity of the enzyme were detected in both the SC and OM fat depots, the two measures being significantly higher in the SC compartment. Women characterized by a visceral adipose tissue area of 100 cm(2) or greater had an increased 20alpha-HSD conversion rate in their OM adipose tissue, compared with women without visceral obesity ( +/- vs. +/- fmol/microg protein per 24 h, P < ). Accordingly, a positive correlation was found between OM adipose tissue 20alpha-HSD activity and computed tomography-measured visceral adipose tissue area (r = , P < ). Significant positive correlations were also found between OM 20alpha-HSD activity and OM adipocyte diameter (r = , P < ) and OM adipose tissue LPL activity (r = , P = ). In conclusion, 20alpha-HSD activity and mRNA were detected in SC and OM adipose tissue in women, and OM 20alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone was highest in women with visceral obesity. Additional studies are required to establish whether local conversion of progesterone may impact on the metabolism and function of adipocytes located within the abdominal cavity.
The following adverse reactions have been observed during appropriate use of somatropin: headaches (children and adults), gynecomastia (children), and pancreatitis (children and adults). In studies of growth hormone-deficient children, injection-site reactions (., pain, bruise) occurred in 8 of the 164 treated patients. Leukemia and new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus have been reported. Serious systemic hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic reactions and angioedema have been reported with postmarketing use of somatropin products.
Adapten-All contains a combination of micronutrients that are crucial for buffering the effects of stress and supporting adrenal gland function. Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) helps support adrenal gland function. Pantothenic acid also breaks down in the body into coenzyme A, which plays a large part in energy (ATP) production. Vitamin B6 is a required cofactor for the synthesis of several neurotransmitters that help buffer stress including serotonin, GABA, and dopamine. Vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin) helps to reset the circadian rhythm of cortisol excretion throughout the day. Vitamin C is a vital nutrient for adrenal gland function. Vitamin C levels are among the highest in the adrenal glands compared to other organs and urinary excretion of vitamin C is elevated during times of stress. Supplementation with vitamin C supports the health of the adrenal glands and also supports immune function.