While academic center-based gender identity clinics were closing, private physicians began providing these services. Dr. Stanley Biber in Trinidad, Colorado, performed his first SRS surgery in 1969. By the time of his retirement in 2003, he had performed more than 5,000 procedures and had made Trinidad the "sex change capital of the world"  . During this time, physicians providing SRS could be found in most major cities in the United States. The Erickson Educational Foundation served as a clearinghouse of information and referrals for those seeking treatment.