The carbonyl end groups that are formed are usually aldehydes or ketones , which can oxidise further to carboxylic acids . The net result is a high concentration of elemental oxygen on the crack surfaces, which can be detected using Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the environmental SEM, or ESEM . The spectrum at left shows the high-oxygen peak compared with a constant sulphur peak. The spectrum at right shows the unaffected elastomer surface spectrum, with a relatively low-oxygen peak compared with the sulphur peak. The spectra were obtained during an investigation into ozone cracking of diaphragm seals in a semi-conductor fabrication factory.
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See exciting examples about how the LUMOS' large working distance eases sampling. AN M114.
Principle of Raman Spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy evaluates the inelastically scattered light of a laser beam. At first glance, Raman spectra look similar to IR spectra but they often contain complementary information and show sharper lines. Raman spectroscopy is especially valuable for inorganic samples where IR spectroscopy sometimes provides only limited information.
Furthermore, Raman microscopy has the capability to measure samples that are inside of closed transparent containers like glass vials or through water in a non-invasive manner. Transparent samples can also be analyzed via depth profiling where for instance multi layered polymer foils can be characterized with a very high depth resolution in the micrometer range.
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optical examination of signs of wear to identify an authentic piece of silverware shadows reveal the industrial or handcrafted manufacture of glass the microscope distinguishes authentic patinas and encrustations from faked ones the dull sound of a porcelain item reveals hidden restoration work