But even is below the national average. Every year a poor child spends in Putnam County adds subtracts about to from his or her annual household income at age 26, compared with a childhood spent in the average American county. Over the course of a full childhood, which is up to age 20 for the purposes of this analysis, the difference adds up to about $3,100 , or 12 percent, more less in average income as a young adult. These findings, particularly those that show how much each additional year matters, are from a new study by Raj Chetty and Nathaniel Hendren that has huge consequences on how we think about poverty and mobility in the United States. The pair, economists at Harvard, have long been known for their work on income mobility , but the latest findings go further. Now, the researchers are no longer confined to talking about which counties merely correlate well with income mobility; new data suggests some places actually cause it. Consider Manhattan , the focus of this article our best guess for where you might be reading this article . (Feel free to change to another place by selecting a new county on the map or using the search boxes throughout this page.) It’s among the worst counties in the . in helping poor children up the income ladder. It ranks 175th out of 2,478 counties, better than only about 7 percent of counties . Compared with the rest of the country, it is also bad for rich boys and rich girls. It is relatively worse for poor girls than it is for poor boys. (The low-income population in Manhattan is concentrated in the far northern and southern parts of the borough.) Here are the estimates for how much 20 years of childhood in adds or takes away from a child’s income (compared with an average county), along with the national percentile ranking for each. What a Childhood in Does to Future Income Across the country, the researchers found five factors associated with strong upward mobility: less segregation by income and race, lower levels of income inequality, better schools, lower rates of violent crime, and a larger share of two-parent households. In general, the effects of place are sharper for boys than for girls, and for lower-income children than for rich. “The broader lesson of our analysis,” Mr. Chetty and Mr. Hendren write, “is that social mobility should be tackled at a local level.” Here’s where stands among its neighbors . How ranks among places in In some places, the new estimates of mobility conflict with earlier estimates. For example, previous estimates suggested that New York City was a good place for lower-income children to grow up: Children raised in lower-income families in New York had above-average outcomes in adulthood.
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