Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces what steroid hormone

Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the CYP17A1 missing in zona glomerulosa and thus produce the major glucocorticoid, cortisol. Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells also contain CYP17A1, whose 17,20-lyase activity is responsible for producing the androgens, dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Thus, fasciculata and reticularis cells can make corticosteroids and the adrenal androgens, but not aldosterone.

Bile is a greenish-yellow fluid that aids in the digestion of fats. After being produced by cells in the liver, the bile travels down through the bile ducts which merge with the cystic duct to form the common bile duct. The cystic duct runs to the gallbladder, a small pouch nestled underneath the liver. The gallbladder stores extra bile until needed. The common bile duct actually enters the head of the pancreas and joins the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of Vater which then empties into the duodenum. Flow of bile indicated by green arrows.

Q. What is asperger`s syndrome? what is asperger`s syndrome and how is it linked to Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) or pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)? A. Let me make it clear that PDD and ASD are same and autism is one of its types. Other types of PDD or ASD are asperger`s syndrome, Childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett's syndrome, Pervasive development disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS). They all have almost similar symptoms with some major differences so they are named differently. Like in asperger`s syndrome, it’s a milder form of autism. Here a child gets obsessive for one thing and excels in it to a good level as they don’t have delay in language and cognitive development. They do face problems in social interaction.

Liver disease can be prevented by following the right lifestyle and diet. Vaccinations that protect from Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B are widely available. Weight control, giving up smoking and alcohol, exercising regularly and a well-balanced diet will reduces the chances of developing a liver disease. Awareness about liver diseases must be increased. The causes and the complications of a liver disease need to be highlighted. The medications that lead to a liver disease also need to be stopped or their intake must be controlled and minimal. For instance, an overdose of acetaminophen or Tylenol will invariably cause a liver failure. Therefore one must never indulge in self medication.

A subgroup of critically ill patients with selective hypoaldosteronism despite hyperreninemia has recently been defined. The mechanism underlying the subnormal response of aldosterone secretion is poorly understood. As cortisol secretion remains intact and the condition usually follows hypotensive episodes, ischemic or functional impairment restricted to the adrenal glomerulosa may be involved. To evaluate the possibility that a specific biosynthetic pathway deficiency exists in hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism (HH), basal and ACTH-stimulated levels of aldosterone and its immediate precursors 18-hydroxycorticosterone (18-OHB) and corticosterone (B) were determined in eight HH patients, six critically ill subjects with normal aldosterone responsiveness, and nine healthy subjects. Baseline aldosterone ( +/- vs. +/- ng/dl) and 18-OHB ( +/- vs. +/- ng/dl) were lower in HH patients than in Intensive Care Unit controls (both P less than ) despite similarly increased renin concentration and activity. ACTH-stimulated aldosterone and 18-OHB were significantly lower in HH patients, although the percent increase was similar to Intensive Care Unit controls. Plasma B was also lower in HH patients, though not significantly. After ACTH, B was markedly lower than both ICU controls (1764 +/- 576 vs. 6299 +/- 1266 ng/dl, P less than ) and healthy controls (3261 +/- 248 ng/dl, P less than ). All groups had appropriate cortisol responses demonstrating normal zona fasciculata function. Since 18-OHB arises predominantly from the zona glomerulosa, whereas B also derives in part from the zona fasciculata, the data suggest generalized impairment of the adrenal zona glomerulosa probably affecting both early and late pathway corticosteroid biosynthesis.

Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces what steroid hormone

zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces what steroid hormone

Liver disease can be prevented by following the right lifestyle and diet. Vaccinations that protect from Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B are widely available. Weight control, giving up smoking and alcohol, exercising regularly and a well-balanced diet will reduces the chances of developing a liver disease. Awareness about liver diseases must be increased. The causes and the complications of a liver disease need to be highlighted. The medications that lead to a liver disease also need to be stopped or their intake must be controlled and minimal. For instance, an overdose of acetaminophen or Tylenol will invariably cause a liver failure. Therefore one must never indulge in self medication.

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